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Repeated merge strategies

From: Greg Hudson <ghudson_at_MIT.EDU>
Date: 2002-12-22 01:58:01 CET

Okay, with some help from Bill Tutt, I think have deciphered the
nature of the conflict between Branko and Nathanael Nerode on repeated
merge strategies. We don't necessarily have to solve this issue
before 1.0, but I thought it might be nice to describe what's going in
as concise a matter as I can manage.

Here are the two general schemes:

The Most Recent Ancestor approach (MRA) [advocated by Nathanael]

In this scheme, you record an optional set of merge sources in each
node-revision. When asked to do a merge with only one source (that
is, just "svn merge URL", with no second argument), you compute the
most recent ancestor and do a three-way merge between the common
ancestor, the given URL, and the WC.

To compute the most recent ancestor, you chain off the immediate
predecessors of each node-revision. The immediate predecessors are
the direct predecessor (the most recent node-revision within the node)
and the merge sources. I guess the most efficient algorithm is an
interleaved breadth-first search.

The Ancestry Set approach (AS) [advocated by Branko]

This is nicely documented in
under "Merging and Ancestry", but I'll give a capsule summary.

In this scheme, you record the full ancestry set for each
node-revision--that is, the set of all changes which are accounted for
in that node-revision. (How you store this ancestry set is
unimportant; the point is, you need a reasonably efficient way of
determining it when asked.) If you are asked to "svn merge URL", you
apply the changes present in URL's ancestry but absent in WC's
ancestry. Note that this is not a single three-way merge; you may
have to apply a large number of disjoint changes to the WC.

Comparisons and arguments

AS allows you to merge changes from a branch out of order, without
doing any bookkeeping. MRA requires you to merge changes from a
branch in order.

We'll need to consider what other version control systems do. I'm
told AS is similar to how Bitkeeper and Arch work, but I don't know
how true that is. If everyone does AS and we do MRA, we'll stand out
as needlessly different.

Branko argued that MRA would not reasonably handle the case of a
commit which reverts a previous change. I guess he was assuming that
in the future Subversion will have some mechanism for recording that
fact; right now a commit which reverts a previous change looks exactly
the same as an original delta that happens to restore the previous
state. To me the situation seems reversed; MRA (with no augmentation
for recording reversions) would attempt to apply a reversion delta,
while AS (augmented to record reversions by removing the reverted
delta from the ancestry set) would seem to never apply a reversion.
(For example, if I create a branch at rev 200, and on the branch I
revert rev 100, and then I merge that branch into the trunk, the AS
merge algorithm would seem to do nothing, since the trunk's ancestor
set is a superset of the branch's ancestor set.)

MRA may be simpler to implement, since it results in a single
three-way diff.

MRA may be easier for users to understand, even though AS is probably
simpler to a mathematician. I have no experience with either system,
so I'm not sure.

MRA may break down faster if the merging topology becomes
non-hierarchical, but I'm having trouble imagining a reasonable use
case for a non-hierarchical merging topology.

An Open Question (applying to both schemes)

If a user asks to merge a directory, should we apply MRA or AS to each
subdirectory and file to determine what ancestor(s) to use? Or should
we apply MRA or AS just once, to the directory itself? The latter
approach seems simpler and more efficient, but will break down quickly
if the user wants to merge in subdirectories of a branch in advance of
merging in the whole thing.

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Received on Sun Dec 22 02:03:19 2002

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